Bladder Cancer Radical Cystectomy

Cystectomy is the surgical removal of all or part of the bladder. It is used to treat bladder cancer that has spread into the bladder wall (stages II and III) or to treat cancer that has come back (recurred) following initial treatment. There are two types of cystectomy :
  1. Partial cystectomy is the removal of part of the bladder. It is used to treat cancer that has invaded the bladder wall in just one area. Partial cystectomy is only a good choice if the cancer is not near the openings where urine enters or leaves the bladder.
  2. Radical cystectomy is the removal of the entire bladder, nearby lymph nodes (lymphadenectomy), part of the urethra, and nearby organs that may contain cancer cells.

In men , the prostate, the seminal vesicles, and part of the vas deferens are also removed.
In women , the cervix, the uterus, the ovaries, the fallopian tubes, and part of the vagina are also removed.
Preoperative testing may include CT scan of the pelvis, abdomen, and chest. Sometimes the doctor will also recommend a cardiac stress test before surgery.
Regional lymph nodes should be removed (lymphadenectomy) during cystectomy. Removing lymph nodes helps doctor determine whether cancer is present in the lymph nodes and provides more accurate information about the stage of the cancer.